|Definitions Used on This Site|
The following list contains some of the other scientific terms on this site: AQUEOUS PHASE - the water portion of a system consisting of two liquid phases, one that is primarily water and a second that is a liquid that does not mix with water (such as oil).
AQUEOUS SOLUBILITY - The ability of a chemical to dissolve in water
BIOAVAILABILITY - The degree to which toxic substances or other pollutants present in the environment are available to the microorganisms which may break them down or to exert their toxicity. The amount of oxygen, pH, temperature, soil composition and other conditions can affect bioavailability.
BIODEGRADATION - the process of being broken down by the action of living things (usually microorganisms). In the case of hazardous chemicals, this refers especially to their breakdown into less-hazardous products.
BIOMARKERS - physical traits used to measure or indicate the effect of a chemical or other environmental exposure.
BIOREMEDIATION - a cleanup process using microorganisms to break down hazardous materials, especially into innocuous products.
BIOTRANSFORMATION - Alteration of the structure of a chemical compound by a living organism or enzyme.
CARCINOGENIC - causing or tending to cause cancer; "the carcinogenic action of certain chemicals"
CHLORINATED AROMATICS - any of several persistent toxic hydrocarbons with multiple rings and at least one chlorine atom. These occur especially as by-products of various industrial processes (as pesticide manufacture and paper milling) and waste incineration.
CHLORINATED DIOXIN - a group of several hundred related chemical compounds formed as a result of processes such as waste incineration and burning fossil fuels. They all fall under the families of either the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) or the chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs). Sometimes the term dioxin is also used to refer to the most studied and one of the most toxic dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS - a broad category of chemicals that comprised of chlorine atoms attached to chains of carbon and hydrogen. Two major Superfund toxins included in this category are trichloroethylene (TCE) and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
DNA ADDUCT - a chemical bonded to the molecular structure of DNA.
EPIDERMIS - the outermost living layer of an animal, composed of one or more layers of cells.
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY - a method of chemical analysis in which the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a medium of charged or coated particles by a stream of inert carrier gas (such as nitrogen or helium). The sample is separated into its component compounds according to the affinity of the compounds for the stationary phase. (abbreviation GC)
GENE EXPRESSION - the detectable effect of a gene
GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY - the degree to which variations in a person's genes impact their responses to hazardous chemicals.
GENOMIC - relating to the study of a complete set of chromosomes
GENOTYPE - the genetic composition of an individual, or the determination of that composition.
GROUNDWATER - Water that collects or flows beneath the Earth's surface, filling the porous spaces in soil, sediment, and rocks. Groundwater originates from surface water and is the source of water for aquifers, springs, and wells.
HETEROGENEOUS - not uniform in structure or composition
IN VITRO - outside the living body and in an artificial environment. i.e. - growth of cells in a test tube
IN VIVO - in the living body of a plant or animal
LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY - a method of chemical analysis in which the sample mixture is dissolved and carried through a medium of charged or coated particles by a stream of inert liquid. The sample is separated into its component compounds according to the affinity of the compounds for the stationary phase. (abbreviation LC)
MASS SPECTROGRAPHY - a method of separating and determining the masses of different forms of a chemical element.
MECHANISTIC MODELING - The formulation of mathematical equations used to describe and simulate some combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes which effect the fate and transport of hazardous chemicals in the environment.
METABOLOMIC - referring to the systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind
MONOZYGOTIC TWINS - twins resulting from a single fertilized egg that at an early stage of development becomes separated into independently growing cell clusters giving rise to two individuals of the same sex and with identical genes.
MULTIPHASE TRANSPORT PHENOMENA - situations involving the simultaneous transport of a chemical within two or more media that do not mix. Such as in project 4, the movement of a chemical within and between two skin layers.
OXIDATIVE STRESS - physiological stress on the body that is caused by the cumulative damage done by free radicals inadequately neutralized by antioxidants
PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELING - a characterization of the interactions of a drug and the body in terms of its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
PHENOTYPE - the observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of an individual's genes and the environment.
REACTIVE INTERMEDIATES - volatile chemicals formed part of the way through the multi-step breakdown process of a target chemical.
REACTIVE METABOLITES - chemicals formed as microorganisms breakdown a target chemical.
REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS) - unstable forms of chemicals that readily donate oxygen atoms which react with other molecules and contribute to oxidative stress.
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS - the routes through which cells communicate by creating and converting proteins.
STABLE-ISOTOPE PROBING - a research method used to link the identity of a bacteria with its function in the environment by analyzing the stable-isotopes in the genes of that bacteria
SYSTEMS BIOLOGY - an integrative approach to understanding the relationships between mechanisms and effects in a biological system, usually involving both experimental and computational tools.
TOXIC - capable of causing injury or death, especially by chemical means; poisonous.
TOXICITY - the quality, state, or relative degree of being toxic or poisonous.
|Last updated January 29, 2013|