|2006 Abstracts, presentation slides, and handouts|
Joseph L. Graves Jr., PhD
The Meaning of Race in Medicine
This presentation will make three main points: 1) Human populations do not have strong genetic differentiation, i.e., they are not biological races as exist in other species. 2) Recent claims that analyses of DNA polymorphisms unambiguously partition individuals into groups that correspond to lay conceptions of race do not allow us to identify specific loci that can explain contemporary health disparities between the supposed human races. 3) Human populations are not genetically disjoint. The case for genetic influences on health disparity is not nearly as well supported as the case for the impact of social dominance on health disparity. Thus, medicine should take both social environment and population genetics into account, instead of seeking explanations in terms of spurious "races" that inappropriately conflate the two.
Pilar Ossorio, PhD, JD
Genes, Race and Medicine
This presentation will make two main points: 1) Many race-based claims in science and medicine extrapolate beyond the data. For instance, many announcements about the approval of BiDil discussed a racial difference in treatment response, and suggested that the purported difference was due to a genetic difference between races. However, the clinical trial data do not show a racial difference in treatment response, nor have there been any reports of genes associated with or causally connected to the BiDil response. Others examples include the many instances in which commentators/researchers propose a genetically-caused racial difference based on the absence of data for alternative explanations. Often, after statistically controlling for income and educational level does not explained the total between-race variability, commentators assume that all possible non-genetic differences have been ruled out, and that any residual between-race difference must have a genetic cause.
2) Race-based medicine is not individualized medicine. When there are data that people of different races respond differently to a drug or intervention, these data consist of differences in the mean of population response curves. Such findings do not imply categorical claims, such as "black people do not respond to ACE inhibitors" or "Asians are slow responders to X." In any population, individuals will vary in their responses to any treatment. Individualizing medicine means determining a particular individual's health risks, treatment responses, and treatment goals. Attributing a group average to all individuals in the group is bad science and is not individualized medicine.
Morris W. Foster, MPhil, PhD
Pharmacogenomics and American Indian Populations: Drug Development in the Context of Health Disparities
Instead of customized therapies for individuals, pharmacogenomics may just re-arrange the way in which the economics of drug development are calculated. American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations make an interesting model for the groups that may be affected. Like many other populations that experience health disparities, AI/AN populations have a lesser economic capacity to (1) attract investments in targeted drug discovery and (2) pay for access to cutting-edge diagnostics and drugs. If pharmacogenomic drugs are provided or developed for AI/AN people through that identity-specific lens, the potential for confounding the social and the biological is considerable. But the economic, cultural, and other challenges that AI/AN people face in having access to pharmacogenomic benefits may most effectively be addressed through the identity portal, so the engagement between pharmacogenomics and historical, social groups and identities may be unavoidable.
Tobacco Use Prevention Initiatives at Historically Black Colleges and Universities:
The On the Ground Smoking Cessation & Prevention Project
Michelle Cotton-Laws, MA
Tobacco Use Among Students Attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Prevalence, Patterns, and Norms
Sharon Fryar Height, BA
On the Ground Smoking Cessation & Prevention Project
Adrienne Y. Witherspoon, BA
Engaging the Local Community and Raising Awareness about Tobacco-Related Disparities
In schedules that allow very little time for activities or issues that do not further one's professional goals, how and why do students work on tobacco control? North Carolina A&T State University has developed a core group of student tobacco control advocates, S.T.O.P. (Stomping Tobacco Out with Pride) who:
Helen Lettlow, DrPH
From The Ground Up: North Carolina's on the Ground College Campus Campaign
|Last updated May 04, 2012|