|2003 Abstracts, presentation slides, and handouts|
Yvonne T. Maddox, PhD
Research Towards the Elimination of Health Disparities
While the overall health of the Nation has improved over the last two decades, there continue to be striking disparities in the burden of illness and death experienced by various racial and ethnic populations. These disparities include shorter life expectancy as well as higher rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, infant mortality, birth defects, asthma, diabetes, stroke, sexually transmitted disease, and mental illness. Complex interactions among biological factors, the environment, and specific health behaviors are believed to contribute to these disparities, along with inequalities in income and education. Biomedical research has an important role to play in eliminating health disparities through (1)advancing our understanding of the development and progression of disease and disabilities that contribute to health disparities in minority populations (2) developing new or improved approaches for detecting or diagnosing the onset or progression of diseases and disabilities that contribute to health disparities, and (3) developing new or improved treatment and approaches for preventing or delaying the onset of progression of life-altering diseases and conditions. Furthermore, establishing and maintaining a research infrastructure which focuses on issues of recruitment, support and retention of diverse medical and behavioral research investigators is crucial to this endeavor. Along with research and a culturally diverse research workforce, a plan to eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities requires that researchers translate research advances into clear, culturally relevant information that individuals can understand in order to improve their health and well-being.
Hortensia Amaro, PhD
Innovations in HIV Prevention with Latina and African American Women at High Risk
While Latina and African American women in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, there continues to be a dearth of effective evidence-based approaches to prevent the spread of HIV infection in these populations.
This presentation will:
Charles Rotimi, PhD
Genomic Definition of Self and Group Identity: Implications for Biomedical Research
Genomic science promises to have profound consequences on our understanding of issues surrounding self and group identity including ethnicity/tribalism and race/racism. The successful completion of the sequencing of the human genome has catapulted us into a brave new world, a world in which we are challenged "to think out of the box" and look at ourselves in ways we never before thought possible. We now have the tools to do whole genome analysis in our quest to describe the pattern of genetic variation and its relationship to the natural history of human origins and the differential distribution of diseases by groups, populations and geography. The new genomic tools will help us begin to answer the following questions: How does genomic variation inform the definition of "populations" used by geneticists and epidemiologists today? What is the relationship between genomic variation and race? What is the relationship between self-identity and the more complex notion of ancestry? Does group identity mean group ancestry? What does it mean to self identify as African American or Hispanic? This presentation will offer some suggestions that are likely to raise additional questions.
Anjani Chandra, PhD
Using Health and Family Data from the National Center for Health Statistics to Study Health Disparities
As the nation's principal health statistics agency, the National Center for Health Statistics provides statistical information to guide actions and policies to improve the health of the American people. With its roots in the National Vital Statistics System over 40 years ago, and its current organizational residence in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NCHS's mission is clear - to monitor the nation's health by providing accurate, relevant, and timely data. NCHS provides mechanisms for obtaining consistent, uniform statistics that allow for:
Adaora A. Adimora, MD, MPH
African Americans and HIV: Context and Epidemiology
Although the U.S. AIDS epidemic was originally perceived as an affliction of white, gay men, African Americans and Latinos have accounted for a majority of newly reported AIDS cases since 1991 and now comprise a majority of all AIDS cases reported to date. The African American and Latino preponderance is particularly striking among women and heterosexually-infected men. Neither differential access to anti-retroviral drugs nor known differences in the number of sexual partners or use of condoms explain the magnitude of the disparity. Recent work in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) points to the importance of sexual networks in influencing the dissemination of STI in populations. Mathematical models have shown that the prevalence of concurrent partnerships - an individual's having more than one sexual partership at a time - can have a powerful effect on dissemination even with the same average number of partners per year.
Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth indicate that 21% of African American women had one or more concurrent partnerships between 1991 and 1995, about double the percentage for other women. Prevalence was lowest among married women, but only about 25% of African American women were married in 1995 - a percentage about half that of other women. In a study of African Americans in the general population of a 13-county region in Eastern North Carolina, we found a 5-year concurrency prevalence of 30% for women and 50% for men, and a one-year prevalence of nearly 20% for women and 30% for men. Men who were unmarried or who had a history of incarcertion were more likely to have had concurrent partnerships, as were women who had had a recent sexual partner who had been incarcerated. Respondents who had had concurrent partnerships also reported having had a nonmonogramous partner. Focus group interviews about community life and contextual factors affecting sexual behavior pointed to pervasive economic and racial oppression, boredom, substance abuse, and a shortage of black men due to high mortality and incarceration as factors responsible for widespread concurrency among unmarried persons. Contextual forces that interfere with stable marriage and long-term partnerships may contribute to African Americans' much higher rates of HIV and other STI.
Antonio Estrada, PhD
The Development, Implementation, and Assessment of a Culturally Innovative HIV/AIDS Intervention for Hispanic Drug Injectors
The video presentation will highlight the development, implementation, and assessment of a culturally innovative HIV risk reduction model for Hispanic (Mexican American) injection drug users (IDUs). The behavioral model predicting behavioral intentions and self-efficacy to reduce HIV risk behaviors included specific demographic characteristics of the sample (i.e., age, education, employment status), cultural factors (i.e., familism, traditionalism, religiosity, and acculturation), 'tecato' - Mexican American drug injector sub-cultural factors (i.e., machismo, respeto), behavioral factors (STDs, sex risk, IDU risk) and psychosocial factors (self-esteem and social support), as well as other factors derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action (risk perception, peer influences, attitudes/beliefs, benefits of HIV risk reduction, HIV/AIDS knowledge, and intentions to reduce HIV risks). A two-staged methodology using both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques was used to assess several of the above concepts, especially those related to culture. Results demonstrated that both cultural and psychosocial factors are predictive of behavioral intentions and self-efficacy to reduce HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic IDUs.
Michael Bird, MSW, MPH
Roots of American Indian/Alaska Native: Indigenous Health Disparities
This presentation will discuss the nature,extent and context of Health Disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native Populations as well as Indigenous Populations through out the world. It will offer an alternative to the myth of personal responsibility as the most significant factor as to why some communities are healthy and others are not.
Fran T. Close, PhD
Racial Disparity in Infant Mortality Among African American Women: A Comparative Study
Infant mortality is a tragedy that affects families across all racial and ethnic groups. In the United States and Florida, African American newborns die two-to-three times more often than White babies. Though the exact cause for the disparity of infant mortality among African Americans is not known, factors thought to contribute to the disparity include the health of the mother before and during pregnancy, high stress levels experienced by some women and cultural beliefs that result in at-risk behaviors. The Florida Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 Project examined the root causes of the disparities in infant mortality rates in two Florida counties. Gadsden County and Hillsborough County represent a small rural community and a large urban community, respectively. These counties were chosen because they have racial disparities in infant mortality rates in excess of the state or other comparable Florida counties. Surveys were administered to African American women of childbearing age (18-44) in both counties. Focus groups were also conducted in various venues throughout the communities. The surveys and focus group protocols concentrated on the intergenerational health habits, psychological and socioeconomic factors that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in African American women. Based on the Periods of Risk Model, it was shown the contributing risk factors for infant mortality in both counties related to prematurity and Maternal Health. These factors include douching practices, maternal infections, women's general health condition, stress and socioeconomic status. For example, women reported a high prevalence of douching at least once a month (Gadsden 88%; Hillsborough 47%). It is hoped that this study will raise awareness and provide information to African American women of childbearing age through community-driven activities that would improve the pregnancy outcomes of women of color.
Otis Cosby, MD, PhD
Seat Belt Use Among African-Americans: Utilizing Key Stakeholders to Decrease the Disparity
Seat belt use among African Americans (AA) has been a focus area for research and outreach activities at Meharry Medical College since the release of its 1999 landmark report 'Achieving a Credible Health and Safety Approach to Increasing Seat Belt Use among African Americans'. The report clearly documented that blacks were less likely to buckle up than whites, particularly among AA youth. Interest was stimulated to address this issue as a public health crisis from many federal, state, and private organizations, including the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, General Motors Corporation, and State Farm Insurance Company. To further the research activities, enhance outreach efforts, and encourage states legislators to support primary seat belt laws, the Meharry-State Farm Alliance was created. This partnership's key objective is to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with motor vehicle crashes by emphasizing primary prevention as a means to reduce the disparity among African Americans; this is the focus of this presentation.
|Last updated April 27, 2011|